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author:MF manufacturerstime:2022-03-12 15:25:20

speaker:Mao Wei people

Bronze era before the iron era

(1mmsquare brass tube)Before entering the iron era,Human civilization is in the era of copper,And there is a huge difference in the production and use of the Chinese and Western,This difference,We can pass the table1Simple chart,Intuitive mastery。

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Mao Wei people:Professor of School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing、PhD Tutor。The main research direction includes the formation and utilization of the anisotropy of the crystalline material crystalline、Research on Electrical Steel Massage Principles and Development of New Electrical Steel Varieties、Development and utilization of high-strength steel anisotropy, etc.。Be responsible for completion10A number of national materials research projects and a large number of enterprise engineering research projects,Published on domestic and foreign publications200Educational papers,Publishing academic monograph6Department、Teaching materials6Department。

Material technology for huge impact on human civilization,Its key elements include not only the time in the new technology.,More important is a large number of applications using this material.。B.C.5000year—B.C.4000Year,There have been artificial copper technology in the Central and Western。Iran、Syria、Egyptian and other places have found an agreement4000Annual artificial bronze and serial copper。Therefore, it is usually considered,West Asia is the earliest area of artificial copper technology。It has unearthed in Linyi, Shaanxi, China.4700Annual brass disabling and brass tube of artificial smelting manufactured。It has also found an agreement in Europe5000Artificial copper products。visible,All parts of the world have emerged in the use of artificial copper products.。

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Casting in AD953Luzhou Tiens。Bright picture/Visual China

Since the China region has a copper ore resources available everywhere and a good high temperature burning pottery technology,China's copper era of bronze continues to grow。Self-bog3000The era of beginning the year(It is also said in ancient history books.“Evil Era”),China's metallurgical technology has matured,And widely used in production life and war。In summer,China has appeared a large copper copper,To the business of China's copper technology to the peak of history。Archaeological excavation display,About BC1500China has never had exquisite bronze Ding Ding using high temperature smelting and casting technology.。These bronze remains,In today's provinces、city、I can find it in the museum of the autonomous region.。

(1mmsquare brass tube)Bronze era、The development of copper copper must first be able to get copper ore resources from the natural environment.。In addition to the small copper ore resources,I found more than 50 midranges in China、Large and super large copper mine,This provides sufficient copper ore resources for the rapid development of China's copper era.。At that time, the copper ore resources in Europe were relatively lacking.,It is difficult to support rapid development of copper technology。at the same time,Copper ore used in early mesenchymelite technology in Europe is mainly carbonate or copper oxide,This ore is relatively easy to smelt copper by heating process.。at that time,When the European surface of the surface, copper or copper oxide is basically exhausted.,There is no suitable high temperature technology and the related techniques of sulfurized copper ore smelting into copper,Therefore, Europe's appearance of about3500The downturn and stagnation of the copper activity after the year。After that, the European Shou Copper has a recovery.,But before ancient Roman appeared,The overall copper production of Europe has always maintained a low level:Before BC5000Artificial copper technology in Europe and nearby, after entering the development period,Because of the use of those techniques described above to deal with copper mines that require higher temperature smelting,The use of European copper has entered the recession period。In front of BC2000year—B.C.700Year1300Year,According to incomplete statistics,West Asia、The annual average annual total production capacity of copper in North Africa and Europe is only about about400Ton。

Iron Age before the Industrial Revolution

Before BC1000Many years ago, invent artificial ironing technology from all over the world,to20century70Era,Humans are in a generalized iron era,Including traditional iron era before the industrial revolution,Until the subsequent iron era or steel era。20The rise of the information industry under the advancement of the plenty of new materials in the late century,Only marking the end of the iron era。

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Bronze。Profile photo

Early artificial iron technology mainly includes two important links of ironmaking and steelmaking。The iron refinement process is roughly:Burning firewood、Fuel heating of coal or charcoal is mainly iron ore based on iron oxide or iron sulfide,The carbon or sulfur in the fuel in the fuel in the fuel into the gas escape,Restore iron in iron ore。Iron ore is still residuous in the reduced iron.、phosphorus、Silicon, etc.,And excess carbon and other impurities。The product obtained by ironmaking is called a pig iron,Its nature is brittle and hard,Usually not suitable for direct use。We can simply understand the iron making process as:Transferring natural iron ore into pigs containing many impurities。Steelmaking or steel process can be understood as:Most impurity elements are more likely to oxidize than iron,Enter the air in the air in the pig in high temperature to the oxygen sulfur in the oxygen iron、phosphorus、silicon、Carbon and other impurity elements,Then try to remove these impurity oxides。E.g,Slag of calcium oxide in liquid iron water,The steel slag is floated in the surface of the iron water and cleaved with the oxidized impurities.。Suitable carbon or add certain advantageous elements can also be controlled during steelmaking.,Get better use performance。We can simply summarize the steelmaking process as:Remove impurities in the cast iron and obtain clean and excellent performance steel products。

About BC1000year,In the early European area,Because the application of copper is very unease,The ancient Romans who take the first to master the iron technology quickly promote the use of iron,Including iron sword、Iron javelin、Iron shield、Iron arrow launching device and iron chain、城 钩、Tony, etc.,At that time, the Roman Army was also equipped with a blacksmith.,Maintenance and production of iron weapons at any time。In the vast area, facing copper copper and its smelting iron-iron-iron-iron-iron-iron technology is not mature enough,The ancient Roman Legion that has accumulated strong military skills has a more prominent military advantage due to its complete iron weapon system.,And ultimately use this type of iron, sweeping、West Asia and Europe。

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2018Tianjin Museum“Pompeios”Ancient Roman iron sickle on display。Bright picture/Visual China

(1mmsquare brass tube)In the same period,Bronze uses very developed China,The promotion of iron is not so urgent。B.C.770Years to BC221year,The Chinese civilization at the time was in the Spring and Autumn Warring States Period.,The war between the princes。Based on the copper copper technology that has been very developed at the time,During the Spring and Autumn Period, countries used a large-scale basically or copper weapon in war during war.。The density of the iron is about the copper.15%;Comparison with copper weapons,Iron weapons have more lightweight、Sharp、Tough, etc.。therefore,With the gradual maturity of silicurization, the Warring States period before Qin unity,Although the military still is mainly based on copper weapons,But I also started to use iron weapons。but,Since there are very developed copper copper companies at the time,The weapons and technologies used in war are not very different.。When entering the Warring States era, it has formed a long-term confrontation between powerful minorities.,War of war often depends on the overall national strength of countries.、Military strategy and decision-making level of the rule。Under this situation,Iron weapons have not replaced copper weapons。for example,B.C.210In the year, Qin Shihuang buried,The Chinese at the time have already mastered the iron technology technology.,But in the archaeological excavation of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum,Researchers have found iron,However, more than 40,000 bronze weapons have been unearthed one after another.。to the Han Dynasty,China also has a long period of mixed use of bronze and iron。However, compared with copper,After all, iron is light in weight、tougher、Sharper and other advantages,and more abundant mineral resources,therefore,Iron smelting technology in ancient China eventually developed steadily,and in agriculture、animal husbandry、textile industry、construction industry、Transportation industry、military、culture、It has been widely used in various fields such as daily life。

Most of the primitive iron smelting technology in China and the West was lump iron smelting technology,That is, heating iron ore in a crucible with a charcoal fire in the air,It is gradually transformed into spongy loose iron。subsequently,Shaped by heating and beating,Remove impurities from iron nuggets、Control carbon content to make iron。If the opening at the bottom of the crucible allows air to circulate freely,Can significantly increase the heating rate and heating temperature,until the reduced iron is melted into a liquid,and flows continuously from the opening in the bottom of the crucible,centralized collection,This is the shaft furnace iron smelting technology。This technique requires higher temperatures,The high-temperature technology that China could achieve when inventing early porcelain,Provided solid support for the ancients to develop shaft furnace iron smelting。B.C.500years ago,Hunan, China、Hubei、Jiangsu、Shanxi、Henan、Shaft furnace iron smelting appeared in Gansu and other places,Therefore, the ancients had the ability to directly cast molten iron into shape,cast iron castings。while in Europe,until AD14century,similar technology。

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5moon7day,The audience is visiting the stepmother Wu Dafang Ding displayed in the National Museum。bright pictures/Visual China

The emergence of shaft furnace technology has significantly improved the primary iron smelting capacity of the ancients,Facilitates the manufacture of large castings。The largest cast iron tool found in the middle of the Chinese Iron Age so far,is AD953Manufactured in the post-week period40Tons of Cangzhou Iron Lion“Zhenhai roar”。

It should be pointed out that,in the iron age,China is making iron、Important technologies ahead of the world have appeared in many key links in steelmaking。for example,reheating pig iron castings,Burning out the carbon in the casting or changing the form of the carbon can significantly reduce the brittleness of the iron made,And greatly improve the performance of iron castings。These technologies have appeared in China during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period,And it was popularized and applied in the Qin and Han dynasties.,and until17、18Similar technology appeared in Europe in the 19th century。According to Song《Taiping Imperial View》record,In the Eastern Han Dynasty, people knew how to use smelting iron bars with higher carbon content as raw materials.,heated repeatedly、forging,Can be processed into steel bars。The number of repeated processing can be thirty times、fifty or even a hundred times,And thus called Thirty Steelmaking、Fifty Steel、Steelmaking, etc.,This is the ancient steel-making technology,and derived from it“Thousands of trials and hardships”“tempered into a steel”wait idiom。Hundreds of steel products are tough、sharp、Durable advantages,Europe was in AD6similar technology。in AD1century,China's emergence of water-driven blower technology,17In the century, piston bellows blowing technology appeared again to improve the temperature and production efficiency of iron smelting。The emergence of these two related technologies in Europe was as late as AD4century and18century。in AD10century,China begins to use coal for iron smelting,16Century used coke for iron smelting,by contrast,Europe has arrived17These higher combustion value fuels were used in iron smelting。in about BC2century,A technology for frying steel has emerged in China。A.D.1The Eastern Han Dynasty《Tai Ping Jing》This technique has been documented in,That is to take the blowing and stirring of the pig iron to promote the burning and oxidation of carbon in the molten iron.,to turn pig iron into steel。Ming Dynasty《Heavenly Creation》A similar process is described in。After smelting molten iron with bellows blast,Can be directly cast into castings,It is also possible to continue to introduce high-carbon molten iron into a square pool,Stir with a long stick,which is“saute”molten iron,mix it with air,Promotes carbon burn loss in molten iron。In this process, plaster is thrown into the square pool,This marl is probably a slag-forming agent。《Heavenly Creation》This set of ironmaking recorded in、Steelmaking Continuous Process,The most important processes in modern steel production principles have been covered,Europe will be late18It took centuries to form a similar process。exist11The Northern Song Dynasty at the beginning of the century,China's iron-smelting and steel-making technology was leading the world at that time and reached its peak,At that time, the annual output of iron had reached the level of more than 100,000 tons.。while in Europe,until18early century,The total annual production of iron across Europe reaches or exceeds this level,The birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, Britain, is1788only produced6.8tons of iron。

The Industrial Revolution and the Development Difference between China and the West in the Iron Age

since18mid-century,New types of machines have been invented in England,and thus led to the industrial revolution。Replacing labor with machines,Can make industrially produced products available in large quantities、high efficiency、low cost、Features such as high quality。but,The manufacture of these machines inevitably involves the large-scale use of steel materials,At the same time, it also proposed a large number of steel materials production.、efficient、low price、high quality requirements。Therefore, steel materials are the necessary material basis for advancing the industrial revolution in history.。1856year,German Siemens conceived of a high-efficiency steelmaking furnace with a molten pool,where fuel and hot air passages are designed,Can quickly heat and control molten steel temperature,Guarantee the quality of steel。Based on the idea of Siemens,1864Frenchman Martin built the first dedicated steelmaking plant,called siemens-Martin Furnace,aka open hearth。Thus began modern steel production。arrive1871year this year,Britain、beautiful、Law、Germany's total steel production reached approx.75tons。four years later1875year,rapidly increases to about165tons。1879year,UK starts building steel bridges with open hearth steel,1889French government contract7000tons of open hearth steel built324The tall Eiffel Tower,This is a landmark achievement of the industrial revolution to promote the improvement of steelmaking technology。1856The British Besmer announced a converter steelmaking method,Efficient method of making steel by blowing air into pig iron in a reversible molten bath。But this method is not suitable for acid pig iron produced in Western Europe。1878year,Thomas of the United Kingdom invented the Thomas method of transforming furnace bricks into alkaline bricks,And it was quickly promoted and applied in France and Germany。immediately,1895Year-old、beautiful、Law、The total amount of steel has exceeded the total amount of steel.1000Tens of tons。From history,High-quality steel material,Strongly support the promotion of the industrial revolution。

surface1 Schematic diagram of the difference between the Chinese and Western bronze usage before the iron era

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Comprehensive content analysis cause,European multi-country neighboring environment,Objectively facilitating the exchange of steel technology and the competitive development of the steel industry。The technical ideology and steel production will learn from each other、Promote、Continue、Integrate,Every new technology in history,If it is blocked in one country,May continue to develop in another country,This leads to the development of European steel technology and industry flourishing。

On the occasion of the industrial revolution,Although China has a variety of good、Even leading steelmaking technology,But most of these technologies are relying on long-term exploration and experience accumulation.。Although there are many technical invention and innovations,But people are not very clear about the scientific principles.。China has a mining industry since west,There is a mixed industry during the Spring and Autumn Period.。Existing literature,West、Spring and autumn、Qin Han、Three Kingdoms Wei Jin、Sui and Tang Dynasties、Fifth generation period、Song Yuan Mingqing and other contributions have the records of government controlling minerals and iron industry.。Under the governance of central centralism,This control reflects strong and efficient characteristics,But if the regulation decision is not scientific enough,It may also cause greater injuries to the smelting industry.。Qi State during the Spring and Autumn Period prohibits folk mining。In the Han Dynasty,Officially restricted local forces,Implement strict official mites and tax management,And eliminate local private cast iron。When the Song Dynasty, Huizong had ordered the civil society to produce farmer.,Boarding iron,Strictly control steel circulation。Ming Dynasty,At the beginning of the industrial revolution,Ming Taizu believes that the minery industry is hurting,Ordered to stop mining smelting,Later, although there is loose,But finally banned。Ming Chengzu、Ming Yingzong、Ming Dynasty、Mingshizong, etc.。Ming Shenzong is a mining private privacy,Causes the mine and mercurizers have been severely damaged。Enter the Qing Dynasty,Mining, including smelting, including Metallurgical period during Kangxi and Yongzheng rule。2000For many years,The ruler of the feudal dynasty severely managed the mine concentrate in the absence of significant foreign competition.,On the one hand, you can get a large number of tax sources.,On the other hand, it is also to prevent places.、The people have been quickly powerful and therefore caused by the mining smelting industry.。At the same time, it also caused the advanced technology formed by China's silver and iron industry to experience the way of technology exchanges in the country.,And it is also easy to lose the continuity of overall inheritance due to the government's prohibited iron policy。Re-opening smelting industry has a large extent requires a lot of accumulation repetition experience and skills。therefore,from18At the end of the century19At the end of the century100Years,China's smelting industry quickly from the leading world to extremely lagging in the world。In the late late year,With the rise of the exquisite movement,China's comprehensive introduction of European steel technology and equipment,At1890Annual Qingxi iron factory and put into production,At1894Annual Hengyang Iron Factory was built and put into production。However, the transit is moved,China has missed the best time for the industrial revolution,Two iron mills built,The former is soaked,The latter can only operate。

(Speech location:Peking University speech time:two〇April 199)

《Bright Daily》(2019year06moon01day10Version)