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4mm brass tube uk

author:MF manufacturerstime:2022-03-12 09:51:21

(4mm brass tube uk)

4mm brass tube uk

  • TubeOnce the protagonist of electronic circuits,widely used in radio、electronic equipment and other circuits,like a radio、TV set、Oscilloscope, etc.,It has made an indelible contribution to the progress of human civilization。althoughtransistorthe emergence of,With its superior performance, it quickly replaced the electronic tube in many fields,But how the tube works、Development ideas、performance etc. still worth our research、Learn,Moreover, due to the electronic tubeStrong load capacity、Linear performancebetter than transistors、Better operating characteristics than transistors in the high frequency and high power region,Therefore, it still has its presence in some circuits,Such as the picture tube in some old TV sets,Antique tube radios, etc.。highly regardedTube amplifierwith itbeautiful tone、sound qualityastonished by many,The key is that it uses a tube,this is a transistor、Integrated circuits are unmatched,Simple circuit structure,It is easier to make than a transistor machine,so popular。There are also some high-power radio transmitters、treatment machine、Tubes are still widely used in colliders, etc.。Therefore, it is necessary to continue to study the electronic tube。As an electronics enthusiast,Knowledge is old and new,understand its basic structure、principle、Uses are of great benefit to our study of electronic circuits。

(4mm brass tube uk)4mm brass tube uk

tube radio

4mm brass tube uk

Picture tube TV

4mm brass tube uk

Tube amplifier

  • A brief history of the development of electronic tubes

  • 1.1883great inventorEdisonA lot of experiments were done in the development of electric lamps,Once he installed a small knot of copper wire near the carbon wire inside the vacuum light bulb,Want to prevent the evaporation of carbon filament,but failed,He accidentally discovered,There is current in copper wires that are not connected in the circuit,Edison was working on electric light,This phenomenon has not been studied,But he patented the discovery,calledEdison effect

  • (4mm brass tube uk)2.1904year,The world's first electronic diode made by British physicistsFlemingwas born,This makes the Edison effect practical。Fleming patented the invention。1907American inventorDeForest inA plate is cleverly added between the filament of the diode and the plate,Thus invented the vacuum triode with amplifying effect。

  • (4mm brass tube uk)Tube DefinitionIt is a kind of electric current conduction in a gas-tight closed container such as glass.,Utilizing the Attractive Effect of Electric Field on Electron Flow in Vacuum,electronics for signal amplification or oscillation。Similar to the transistor is the participation of the electric field,through the anode(positive electrode)、base(gate)Changes in control current。The difference is that the charge carriers of the electron tube are only electrons,And transistors have holes、electronic two,Of course there are many other differences。

  • (4mm brass tube uk)The biggest feature of the tubeThe tube is in a high vacuum state,The purpose of this is to ensure that gas ionization is not caused,lead to changes in carrier properties,Characteristic curve becomes worse,And the electrode oxidation life is shortened。So a leaking tube is a broken tube,can no longer be used。The shortcomings of the tube are obvious:huge size、High power consumption、high calorific value,short life、Fragile structure,High voltage power supply required。

  • The world's first computer was1946Born at the University of Pennsylvania,used1.8million tubes,Occupy land167square meter,heavy30Ton,power consumption150kw。

  • (4mm brass tube uk)Tube classification,same as semiconductor devices,Smart humans have created a wide variety of tubes according to their needs,to suit different conditions,many kinds of,distribute a lot。

  • 1.By number of electrodes:triode、Tetrode、pentode.....Nine poles、Composite pipe,Tubes with more than three poles become multipole tubes

  • (4mm brass tube uk)2.By cooling method:water cooling、air cooling、Free cooling

  • 3.By internal structure:single diode、double diode triode、single triode etc.

  • 4.By shielding:Sharp cut-off shielded tube、Remote cut-off shielded tube

  • (4mm brass tube uk)5.shape:bottle shaped glass tube(ST)、Acorn tube、cylindrical glass tube(GT)、large glass tube(Gtube)、Metal porcelain tube、small tube(Peanut tubes or finger tubes)、tower tube(lighthouse tube)、Subminiature Tube(pencil type)

  • 6.How the cathode is heated:Direct heating(The current is passed directly through the cathode to bring it to the thermionic emission state)、Bypass heating(Heats up through the filament next to the cathode)

  • 7.use:voltage amplifier tube、power amplification、mixing or frequency conversion、Rectifier、oscillating tube、detector tube、Tuning indication、Zener tube

  • (4mm brass tube uk)Tube Subdivision

  • 1.space charge control tube:receiver amplifier tube、launch tube、modulation tube、Damping tube、stabilizer tube、Rectifier、Zener tube;

  • 2.electron beam tube:Photoelectric image device(camera tube)、cathode ray tube(Oscilloscope, etc.)

  • 3.microwave tube:Magnetron etc.

  • 4.Photosensitive device:Photocell etc.

  • (4mm brass tube uk)5.ion tube;glow tube

  • 6.other;Xray tube, etc.。

  • The internal structure of the tube

  • 1.cathode,source of electrons;But at room temperature the cathode does not emit electrons,It needs to be heated to emit electrons,This method of emitting electrons by heating is called thermal emission of electrons。All tubes emit electrons in this way;

  • 2.filament:for heating the cathode,Direct heating filament is the cathode,Bypass heating filament is only responsible for heating the cathode;

  • 3.anode:receive electrons emitted by the cathode,Positive pole of external power supply。

  • 4.gate:Control the number of electrons reaching the anode;and suppressor gate、screen grid;gate、Suppress gate with negative voltage,Positive voltage applied to screen grid

  • 5.stem:Support each electrode in the tube and lead each electrode out of the tube;

  • 6.Mica slice:The relative position between the fixed motor and the sustain electrode and the function of preventing the die from oscillation

  • 7.getter:Used to absorb the residual gas in the tube,Keep a high vacuum in the tube all the time

  • 8.Bottom of the tube;pin on pin,Realize the fixation of the tube、Install,connection with external circuit

  • 9.shell:to form a vacuum,fixed internal structure

4mm brass tube uk

(4mm brass tube uk)Triode tube structure

  • How to determine the pin number of the tube

  1. Tube with locator key:First put the bottom of the tube up,Then take the first one to the left of the positioning key as1foot,The rest can be determined in the clockwise direction。

  2. small tube:First put the small tube pins up,Then take the left one with the largest distance between pins as1foot,The rest are determined in a clockwise direction;

(4mm brass tube uk)4mm brass tube uk

4mm brass tube uk

(4mm brass tube uk)4mm brass tube uk

4mm brass tube uk

Typical Dual Triode Pin Diagram

  • Tube Pin Identification Tips:Each electrode in the tube is connected to the external circuit through the pin,Once the wrong pin is connected,will make the circuit inoperable,even burn the pipes。

  1. (4mm brass tube uk)small seven feet、Small nine-pin pin arrangement:on tube radio、in megaphone,Most of the tubes used are seven、Eight、nine feet。Among them, the commonly used heptapods are6A2、6K4、6J1、6J2、6G2、6Z4Wait;Commonly used nine-legged pipes are6P1、6N1、6P14、6U1、6E1、6E2,Since both types of tubes are small tubes with glass shells,Also known as finger tube or peanut tube,And call their pins the small seven pins、little nine feet。The pins of these tubes are facing themselves,There is a larger distance between the two pins,We call this larger distance the gap,Set the number of the first pin on the left side of the notch as the first pin,Then clockwise to the second、third...。As shown in the figure above, the typical double tripod pin diagram。

  2. Octal,Such as6P6P、6J8P、5Z3PWait,The distance between the pins of these tubes is equal,In order to prevent wrong insertion, a central key is set for its positioning function.,The first pin on the left of the key is the first pin,Then clockwise for the second foot....As shown in FIG。

  3. Quadruple、Five-pin pin arrangement,Two of these tubes have thicker pins,for filament,put the pin out of limit yourself,The thick foot on the left is the first foot,Then follow the clockwise direction for the second foot.....

  • How to name tubessplit cathode ray tube、receiver amplifier tube、launch tube、Photocells, etc. are named differently。The following is only the description of common receiver amplifier tubes

  • consists of four parts:1234,

  • 1Indicates the filament voltage(v)numbers,If there is a decimal, take the integer part。

  • 2.Indicates the type of tube,D-diode(detection),Z-diode(Small power rectification),H-double diode,6-double diode、triode,B-double diode-pentode,C-triode,N-double triode,F-three-pole-pentode,S-Tetrode,J-Sharp-cut pentodes and sharp-cut beam tetrodes,K-Remote cut-off pentode,T-double tetrode or double pentode,P-Output pentode and output beam tetrode,A-Inverter tube,U-three-pole-Hexode-heptode-Octode,E-Tuning Indicator Tube;

  • 3.A number representing the serial number of a similar product;

  • (4mm brass tube uk)4.letters representing structural forms,p-glass tube,k-ceramic pipe,j-Acorn tube-small tube-no code,Subminiature Tube-diameter greater than11mm-g,diameter11-8mmb,diameter4mm-8mma,diameter<4mmr,lock tubes,Coil sealing tubed

  • Such as5Z4P:double diode rectifier

  • (4mm brass tube uk)6N9P:Indirectly heated double triode

  • diode tube

  • Diode tube structure:anode、cathode、filament、vacuum tube composition,Also called vacuum diode tube,was first invented。The function of the filament is to heat the cathode,enhance its internal thermal movement,The cathode is made of metal,We know that the movement of free electrons in metals is greatly affected by temperature,Free electrons escape from the surface as the temperature increases,This is called thermal emission of electrons,Different metals have different abilities to thermally emit electrons,We smear the cathode with a substance that easily emits electrons。After a positive voltage is applied to the anode,will be at the anode、An electric field is formed between the cathodes,The direction of the electric field is from the anode to the cathode,The electrons escaped from the cathode will move towards the anode under the action of the electric field force,This creates a current,Current direction is from anode to cathode,Opposite to the direction of motion of free electrons。When a negative charge is applied to the anode,block the movement of electrons,so that no current is formed,This is how a diode tube works,It has good unidirectional conductivity,This is stronger than the crystal diode,But it can pass less current,Anode voltage is higher。Using this feature of it can be used to rectify,In order to exert its rectifying effect,People make two anodes to make a double diode,share a cathode,Can be used for full wave rectification。

4mm brass tube uk

Bypass heating diode

4mm brass tube uk

  • (4mm brass tube uk)triode tube:Add a third electrode between the anode and cathode of the diode tube near the cathodeg(gate),form a triode。Using the grid to control the amount of electrons emitted from the cathode to the anode。Its corresponding relationship with the transistor:Cathode is equivalent to Emitter,The gate is equivalent to the base,The anode is equivalent to the collector,Its circuit composition is similar to the basic amplifier circuit of a transistor,But the gate is negatively biased。The disadvantage of the triode tube is the large capacitance between electrodes,low magnification。

4mm brass tube uk

Triode tube

4mm brass tube uk

(4mm brass tube uk)Electronic triode amplification circuit

  • Quadrupole:If the anode and control gate of the true triode,Another gate constitutes a quadrupole,This gate is called a screen gate,It adds a fixed positive voltage。The disadvantage of the quadrode is that the anode characteristic curve is present in the existence of concave,Make its scope of work,Single quadrupole has been eliminated。

  • Five-pole tube and beam tetudes

  • Five-pole electronic tube is based on the triode,Add two gates,Become tubes with three gates,g1Control gate,g2Screen gate,g3Inhibitory gate。The special structure makes the extreme capacitance decrease,Increase amplification factor;

  • Bunch of tetles and five-pole tubesDifferences,It does not have to suppress the gate,And between the anode and the screen gate,Device has a pair of cylinders connected to a cylinder board,Make it with large power。

  • Composite electronic tube;Mind two or three separate tubes in one housing,A composite tube is formed

  • (4mm brass tube uk)Electronic ray oscillating tube,Widely used in electronic oscilloscope as a waveform showing electrical changes,Minute:Electron gun、Deflection plate、Phosphor screen,Controlling the electrical flow path is the electric field;

  • Imaging tube:Electron gun、Deflection coil、High pressure pole、Phosphor screen,Controlling the electrical flow path is an electric field and a magnetic field.。

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