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3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

author:MF manufacturerstime:2022-03-10 19:14:30

Piano88A key,There are at least six holes in the flute.,And the trumpet is only three piston valves,Why can you play so much notes??Exquisite and shiny tube musical instrument and a heavy black gray car exhaust pipe,The two actually have the principle of communication.。

Author | Wu Jinyuan(Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)

weekend,I and roommate、The goddess in my mind, the goddess, the leader, to her grandparents.。(The story of our three before“Seven sound order” “Twelve average” “Forged Pythagora”。)Her grandparents from the literary backbone of the fishing village,With superb skills and active learning,Gradually go to the county and the province。After hard work and professionalism,Grandpa is now a pure bronze tube music player,Grandma is a soft singer。

01 Car silencer and tube instruments have a common point?

Grandpa grandmother saw us,I am very happy to laugh.,We are also no longer causing infection.。I was attracted by a half-length photo of Grandfather in the bookcase.:“Grandpa is so happy.。”I am sincere。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Hahaha,old,old。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

By PJ, background cropped by EWikist - File:Trumpet 1.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11341734

“grandfather,”Spring is pleased:“Three piston valves on your trumpet,What is this??”

“The piston valve on the trumpet is used to change the length of the pipeline.。”Grandpa speaking:“Each piston valve is pressed,Just add a small piece of pipe to the entire gas path,Play to increase the total length of the instrument。The first valve makes the tone reduce a full sound,The second reduces a half sound,The third reduced three half。”

“But,”Spring room friend asked:“Piano88A key,There are at least six holes in the flute.。And only three piston valves on your trumpet,Why can you play so much notes??”

“Yes,”I also have questions:“I see that the trumpet players play a different note in a melody.,Sometimes,Sometimes,what is going on?”

Grandpa stunned,Obviously our problem is too low.,Let Grandpa don't know why。So he opened the small cabinet drawer to take the car key:“go,It seems that you will take you to my studio to do some experiments.。”

“come back earlier,”Grandmother:“Don't delay food。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)We are sitting in the car,Grandpa boiled the car,Then ask us:“Do you listen to the sound of the engine??”

“Listen carefully to see。”

“The sound of the car engine is very noisy,But why do the cars in the city are not so noisy??”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“This is because the car has a silencer.,”Spring House Friends:“Our dormitory security guard,The exhaust pipe rusted in front of the muffler, rustled a hole,Open like a motorcycle。Every day, he will take the car in advance.,Solvert to get off work,Catch the classmate,Quarrel everyone。”

“So why silencer can reduce the noise of the car engine??”

“Is it a blocked noise??But,Why will it block the exhaust gas of the engine??”

“The basic pair you said,”Grandpa said:“Car silencer is a big iron barrel,The exhaust gas of the engine passes a pipe,Go to the iron barrel。A pipe is sold in the back of the iron barrel,Let the exhaust gas beside。Engine noise,These imports and exports reflected back from exhaust pipes。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Car exhaust pipe

“Voice in the pipe,Will be reflected back by the exit of the pipe?”Spring room friend can not understand。

“Yes,”Grandpa explained:“We don't understand,The sound in the pipe will only run from the exit of the pipe to the outside,Actually,It's a small part of the run.,A large part will be reflected back。”

“Grandpa explains, I will understand.。”Cherished:“You said to me before,Sound reflects in the tube musical instrument,Form resonance。I always want to,I always feel that the exit of the sound to the instrument will run outside.。now I know,In fact, there will still be a lot of reflection.。”

Wow,Really don't think,Exquisite and shiny tube musical instrument and a heavy black gray car exhaust pipe,The two actually have the principle of communication.。

02 Harmonic frequency of closed tube and opening

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)Studio in Grandpa,Grandpa took a round bead pen,Let the spring room friends take the pen to take the pen。Spring room friend is skilled in the ball,Take the pen tube to your mouth“Beep”Bounce。

Toysu class has been happy with a song.:“Wicker,Wicker,Wicker hanging on the side。Branch, wicker, a young man,Blowing a small song。”

“Listening to this song, I know that the little sister is a good student.。”Spring House Friends:“For me like this,Yes:Class boring blow pen tube,Teacher criticizes the students。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Hahaha,”Grandfather laughed:“Speak from music,Liu whistle and pen tube are tube musical instruments,Can be a special way。”

Grandpa knows that there is a software on my mobile phone calledSpectrum View,Let me open,Also let the Spring room friend block one side of the pen tube,There is such a spectrum on the phone screen.。

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Spectrum horizontal coordinates are frequencies,Ordinate is intensity,Each spike represents a resonant frequency。Circular length9centimeter,First resonant frequency870Hzabout。what is interesting is,Pipeline blocking one end,Its spectrum only has a wonderful multiplier resonant peak,No doll。

When the pen tube is open,The spectrum of the sound is like this。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

At this time, we see only doll frequencies in the harmonic peak.,No odd times。Of course we can also defineF=2f,These spectrum2f,4f,6f,8fMultiplier spike,You can see it as:1F,2F,3F,4F,Means of,YesFInteger multiplication。

“what is going on?Why block one end of the pipe or release it will have different resonant frequencies??”

Grandpa pointed to two pictures hanging on the wall,Slowly explain to us。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)For columnar pipelines,One end block,The slight change in the sound wave pressure in the time of resonance is this。

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Close this end on the left,Compressed air can't exercise,Therefore, the pressure change is great.。On the end of the right,The air in the pipe is connected to the outside air,The change in pressure is basically0。Thus,When the length of the pipe is the wavelength of sound1/4,3/4,5/4Multiplex,Sound waves in the pipeline retrofitting and resonance。That's why one end blocks the pipeline,Its spectrum only has a wonderful multiplier resonant peak。

Open pipes on both ends,The slight change in the sound wave pressure in the time of resonance is this。

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)

In this situation,At both ends of the pipe,Air is connected to the outside air,The change in pressure is basically0。Thus,When the length of the pipe is the wavelength of sound2/4,4/4,6/4Multiplex,Sound waves in the pipeline retrofitting and resonance。This is why the two ends open,There is only doll of resonant peaks in the spectrum.。

03 Octagon super blowing and 12 degrees

“These properties,Can we see the instrument of our usual child learning??”Spring is hurt this room。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“I learned a few tenthers when I was a child.,Very curious why there is a musical instrument is eight degrees,And some is 12 degrees。”Cherished:“Now it seems,It is determined by the nature of the pipe resonant frequency.。”

“What is a super blow??”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Ultra-blowing is a method of playing a treble in the instrument。”Jane's handover explained:“For example, a general bamboo flute,Six tone holes,Such a total of functions‘many’arrive‘West’Seven sounds,Obviously it is not enough。Need to play the treble,Players will blow hard,In this way, the flute will make a high-eight degree sound.。This kind of playing skill is called super blowing。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)The high eight degree refers to the frequency increase is the original2Multiplication,The air in the flute is a cross-sectional columnar body.,Connected to the outside air atmosphere in the blowing hole and the sound hole, respectively,So is an open pipeline at both ends。Um,Understood,When you blow it normally,The resonant frequency of the air column corresponds to the first spike in the above spectrum.(2f=1F)。Pre-blowing,Incentive a second spike(4f=2F)。So frequency is doubled。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Pre-blowing,Is the frequency doubled??”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“uncertain,”Cherished:“Such as a clarinet,The air inside it is one-end closed column,So when it is blown,Frequency from1fbecome3f,This is called 12 degrees。”

“Frequency from1fbecome3f,Why is it twelve??”Spring room friend did not respond。

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“I know this,”I rose:“This triple frequency relationship corresponds to the twelve sound in music,Such as1FSing into‘many’,2FCorrespond to treble‘many’,3FIs going going up,Correspond to treble‘Aspiope’。and‘many’Between 12 degrees of audio relationship。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

I painted a picture on the whiteboard.。A number of frequencies of integer multiplication(Apart from7and11outside),Can correspond to one note,I think the primitive is the same as this.。Of course, people have used tribial profit or five degrees.,Later, I used Zhu Zai's twelve average law to re-determine the pitch of the note.,In this case, some frequencies become approximately an integer relationship.。Of course,2,4,8,16Such a high eight degree relationship is always an integer,No change。

04 Want to create a musical instrument,First diamond horn pointer

“grandfather,”Cherished:“I didn't learn a double spring tube,But I heard that the double arch tube is octave.。I do not understand,The double arch and the clarinet is closed.,Why is the double spring tube is not a 12 degree ultra-blowing instrument??”

“There is a prerequisite for our previous discussion,That is, this pipe is a cylindrical body that is divided.,The pipeline of the clarinet is this top and bottom general crude column.。If the cross section of the pipeline changes,The situation is different.。”Grandfather said,Take a musical instrument box from the cabinet,Open to us。

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Image Source:

Double arch tubes are not available,It is the dismantling of four quarters in the instrument box.。Double arch trip is decomposed,It can be seen from the reed to the row.,The cavity in the tube gradually becomes thick,Approximation a cone。

“When we turn thick when we open the end of the closed tube,”Grandpa explained:“The equivalent length of the pipe is shortened.,turn out to be1fand3fThese resonant frequencies will rise。Under certain conditions,The ratio between these two resonant frequencies will reach1:2,In this way, the double arch tube can achieve octaves.。This internal cavity is a tapered musical instrument and a Basone tube、Saxophone, etc.。”

“Clarinet and double arch,Both the tube instrument made of black wood,But it is very different,Can't be called a black tube(The black tube is the common known as the clarinet)。”Spring House Friends:“They are often arranged together in the band,I have been stupid for a long time.。Later, high school teachers told me,Blowing mouth is relatively thick,Playing like a popsicle,Clarinet。Blowout,Play like drinking soda,Two-spring tube。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“If we make further put the inner cavity of the tube musical instrument into a perfect cone,All resonant frequencies will become1fEven multiple,Or2fInteger multiple。”Grandpa pointed to the picture on the other surface, let us see。

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Perfect cone,Look at it is a straightened horn。Primitive human hollow,Drill a hole in the horn tip,You can get a tube instrument that is quite good.,And don't need a modern musical instrument, although high precision,But quite a cumbersome tuning modification。

05 What is a bronze instrument?

“grandfather,”Cherished:“We chatted a lot of wood tube instruments,Now you haven't give us a bronze instrument yet.。”

“Copper tube musical instruments and tubes have many ways。”Grandpa said:“They are all caused by the air in the pipe.,Different places are different ways to excite air vibration。The copper-tube instrument is vibrating when the lip is blown to motivate air resonance in the pipe.。”

“Tube instrument determine the frequency by two methods:First, the length of the air cylinder or cone,The second is to select the excitation sound required from multiple resonant frequencies.。Wooden tube instruments are mainly playing different notes,Occasionally by super blow to select high octave or high 12 degrees resonant frequency to expand the sound area of the instrument。Brass instrument is just in turn,Mainly on selecting different resonant frequencies to play different notes,The change of the pipeline is a relatively auxiliary method.。Modern copper tube instruments often have three or four valves,Change the pipe length by pressing the valve,To fill the missing notes between these resonant frequencies。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“so,You see very few places you can press on the copper tube instrument.。Early multi-copper tube instrument,The root can not be pressed to change the length of the pipeline.,This instrument is called the natural length instrument。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

A natural length trumpet │ The author is photographed in the Vienna Technology Museum

“Actually modern copper tube instruments,Such as the military number,There is neither a valve,There is no sound hole,Completely relying on such a fixed length pipeline,You can play at least‘Beat’Four notes,They correspond to3F,4F,5F,6FThese resonant frequencies。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Military number │ Author shoot

“For the copper tube instrument,There is also a very special place。”Grandpa will then explain:“Because we play the copper tube instrument,It's all blocked with your mouth.,Therefore, the copper tube instrument is one-end closed pipeline。If the pipe is a crude column body,It can only get1f、3f、5fWaiting for odd multiples,This can be played.。Therefore, you must find a way to get the resonant frequency of an integer frequency sequence.,That is1F、2F、3F、4Fetc。”

“So we see a lot of instruments,Above this military number,Directly uses a tapered design,The diameter of the pipeline increases。If it is like a trumpet or a round of musical instruments with a long section,It is necessary to connect a diameter gradually increased exit in the tail.。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Small management process │ The author is photographed in the Vienna Technology Museum

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Most of the current copper tube instruments are made with brass,But many musical instruments made with other materials,Suquity、The screws are actually a copper tube instrument。in turn,Some musical instruments made with copper,Such as flute、Saxophone, etc.。”

06 Screw mystery with round hand

“grandfather,”Spring room friend:“You and your grandmother have been accepted by screws.《Sea female militia》Yes?”

“Hahaha,”Grandpa patted the head of the rare:“This chick,I always like the story of the old age.。”

“Neither,”Spring House Friends:“I am not for gossip,I want to figure out the music knowledge inside.。”

“Talk about it。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes


“I think,《Sea female militia》The music of the four sentences is your dialogue with you and your grandmother.。”

(grandfather:)Diendal golden fight,

(grandfather:)Briting green waves,

(grandmother:)Silver screwdriver,

(grandfather:)Hand holding a shiny steel gun。

“This imagination is full。”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“The screws are like an uchille.,Is a natural length instrument。Moreover, the diameter of the pipe is also gradually increased.,Therefore, good players should be able to blow out‘Beat’These four notes。”

“This song is relatively easy to understand,This sentence is used in this sentence.‘More’Four notes,In fact, these four notes are the cream of the cream.‘Beat’,It's just in different tunks.,Can sing‘More’。”


“But in the first second and fourth sentences,Apart from‘Beat’,There are still many places to be used.‘Come’This note,You can use a score,How can I blow a note that doesn't have??”

“Oh,This is not difficult,”Grandpa said:“You hand together on the screwdriver,according to‘mum’Blow,The hand outside the screw opening is added to the increase of the length of the screws.,Bundle‘mum’This note is lowered,You can get‘Come’In。”

“actually,”Grandpa will then explain:“This technique is very widely used in the round number performance.。”

“Early rounds are used in hunting,Mozart《Fourth Round Coordination》Have you heard??Is it very lively??”

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Natural length round number │ Author shoot

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“Early round is natural length instrument,Length of the pipe。Therefore, the notes can be played,For hunting,These limited notes are enough,But it is suspected of encrypted the orchestra.。So the player in that time invented a kind of‘block’Methods,It is the handle in the eute mouth of the round number.。This is equivalent to increasing the length of the routing,Resonance frequency is reduced accordingly,So get the original note。”

3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes

Round number player right hand position │ Author shoot

(3 8 inch extra brass pen tubes)“There are three or four valves in modern round numbers.,By changing the length of the pipeline,Already played any one note。But the right hand tip of the round number,Still reserved until now。”

“哒 哒,哒 哒,哒 哒 哒——,Take a drop,Take a drop,哒 哒 哒 哒 哒——”Grandfather's grandmother's call is what he is blowing.《Assault number》add《Cavalry》。Yes, my grandmother is reminding us to go back to eat.。

07 little Knot

“How?”When eating,Grandmother asked:“Go to my grandfather to learn anything.?”

“I have learned something.,I get it now。”Spring House Friends:“Copper tube musical instrument even when the length is fixed,Can also blow a series of notes in harmonious flungery,Only the base frequency2、3、4、5、6、8、9、10、12Multiplication(Baseband and7、11Double frequency is usually not available)。There are usually three or four valves on modern copper tube instruments.,Press these valves to access a pipeline,Let all tones in the entire harmonious row decline in a certain proportion。so,Most copper tube instruments only need three valves,Of all notes of the middle sound area。”

“Summary。”Grandma,Then reach out chopsticks:“Come,Reward a chicken leg。”

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