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Copper Tube Information

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8mm x 1mm brass tube

author:MF manufacturerstime:2022-03-08 18:01:00

Pipeline equipment,Generally include a pipe、Fitting fitting、valve、Flange、Gaskets and fasteners and other pipe components,For example, filter、Splitter、Firer、Compensator, etc.。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

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Pipe classification:

Many tubes classification methods,Classification according to material can be divided into metal tubes、Non-metal tube and steel lining non-metallic composite tube。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Non-metal pipe mainly has a rubber tube、plastic pipe、Asbestos cement tube、Graphite tube、Glass steel pipe, etc.。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Cast iron pipe:

Cast iron pipe is made of cast iron。According to its manufacturing method, it can be divided into:Sand type centrifugal insert straight tube、Continuous cast iron straight tube and sand iron pipe。According to the material used, it can be divided into:Gray iron tube、Ductile iron pipe and high silicon iron tube。Cast iron pipe is mostly used in water、Drainage and gas and other pipes。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)8mm x 1mm brass tube

Welded steel pipe:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Welded steel pipe,Stylit steel tube is also known,Generally, it is generally welded by a steel plate or steel strip.。

According to the surface treatment of the pipe, it is divided into galvanized and non-galvanized.。Surface galvanized white,Alike called a white iron or galvanized steel pipe;Surface is not galvanized, ordinary welded steel pipe,Black iron pipe。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Galvanized welded steel pipe,Commonly used for transport media requires more clean pipelines,Such as living water、Purifying air、Instrumental air, etc.;No zinc welded steel pipe,Can be used to deliver steam、gas、Compressed air and condensed water, etc.。

According to user requirements,Welding steel pipe can be divided into two,One is the tube end with threaded,The other is that the tube is not threaded。Welding steel pipe with threaded tube,Each tube length is4~9m,Welding steel pipe without thread,Each tube length is4~12m。

Welding steel pipe is different from the thickness of the wall,Thin-walled steel pipe、Thickened steel pipe and ordinary steel pipe。The most used in the process pipe is the ordinary steel pipe.,Its test pressure is2.0MPa。Thickened steel pipe test pressure is3.0MPa。

Commonly used welded steel pipe specification range is a nominal diameter6~150mm。

Seamless steel pipe:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Seamless steel pipe,Seamless steel tube is a hollow section、No seams in the surrounding,Square,Rectangular steel。Seamless steel tubes are made into a hair tube with a steel ingot or a solid pipe.,Then passed through hot rolling、Cold rolling or cold dial。Seamless steel pipe has hollow section,A large number of pipes used as conveying fluids。Is the maximum amount of industrial pipeline,Variety of pipelines,Basically, two major categories of seamless steel pipes with fluid delivery and seamless steel pipes with specializens,The former is a steel pipe commonly used in craft pipelines,The latter is like a boiler special steel pipe、Cracking cooker and heat exchanger steel pipe, etc.。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

According to the material can be divided into carbon seamless steel pipe、Chrome-molybdenum seamless steel pipe and stainless、Acid-resistant steel pipe。Pressure according to nominality can be divided into low pressure(0≤1.0MPa)、Medium pressure(1.0<10MPa=、high pressure(≥10MPa)Three categories。Process pipelines are commonly used in fluid delivery seamless steel pipes。

1.Carbon seamless steel pipe,Commonly used manufacturing materials10No、20No、16Mnsteel,The specification range is:Hot rolling outer diameterφ32~630mm,Cold extra outer diameterφ6~200mm,Single tube length4~12m,Allowing operating temperature-40~450℃,Widely used to transport various types of steel non-corrosive,Severe steam、oxygen、Compressed air、Oil and oil, etc.。

2.Low alloy steel seamless steel pipe,Series alloy steel pipes containing a certain proportion of alloy elements。Usually divided into two kinds,One is a low alloy steel tube containing manganese elements,Ordinary low alloy steel pipe,Such as16Mn、15MnVWait;The other is to contain chromium、Low alloy steel pipe for elements such as molybdenum,Willa steel pipe。Commonly used12CrMo、15CrMo、12Cr2Mo、1Cr5MoWait,The specification range is outside the outer diameterφ10~φ273mm,Single tube length4~12m,The temperature range of chromium-molybdenum steel pipe is-40~550℃。Low alloy seamless steel pipe,Multi-use to transport various temperatures of oil、Salt water with strong oil and corrosive、Low concentration organic acid, etc.。HVAC

3.Stainless acid-resistant steel pipe,According to chrome、nickel、There are many varieties of different contents of titanium various metals.,haveCr13、00Cr17Ni14Mo2、1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti、1Cr18Ni9TiWait。The most used is1Cr18Ni9Ti,Simplified material documents in the construction drawing18-8To represent,Applicable temperature range-196~700℃,Media for transporting a variety of corrosive media in chemical production,Nitric acid、Acetic acid and urea, etc.。

4.High pressure seamless steel pipe,Its manufacturing material is basically the same as the seamless steel tube described above,Just tube wall ratio medium low pressure seamless steel tube thickness,Thirtiest tube wall40mm。Such as high pressure seamless steel pipe specifications for fertilizer equipmentφ14×4(mm)~273×40(mm),Single tube length4~12m,Applicable pressure range10~32MPa,Operating temperature-40~400℃。Transfer raw material gas in the petrochemical device seamless steel pipe、Hydrogen、Syngas、water vapor、High pressure condensed water。

Copper tube:

Brain tube is divided into piratulatures and brass tubes。Making the materials used by the purple copper tubeT2、T3、T4andTUPWait,High copper,Take up99.7%above;Brass manufacturing materialH62,H68Wait,Both zinc and copper alloy,Such asH62Brass,Its material ingredients copper60.5%~63.5%,Zinc39.6%,Other impurities are less than0.5%。

The manufacturing method of the copper tube is divided into two types of drawing and squeezing.。Pull the outer diameter of the copper pipeφ3~φ200mm,The outer diameter of the squeezed copper tube isφ32~φ280mm,Wall thickness1.5~5mm;Copper coil welding copper tube specification range is outside diameterφ155~φ505mm,The supplier has two kinds of single and set。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Applicable working temperature of the copper tube250℃the following,More used in oil pipelines、Insulation with pipes and spoof oxygen pipes。

Titanium tube:

Titanium tube is a new type of pipe in recent years.,Because it has a lightweight、high strength、Characteristics of corrosion resistance and low temperature resistance,Often used for other pipes that cannot be competent。Titanium tube is usedTA1、TA2Industrial pure titanium manufacturing,Applicable temperature range-140~250℃,Temperature exceeds250℃Time,Its mechanical properties have decreased。Commonly used titanium tube specification range is a nominal diameter20~400mm。Suitable for low medium pressure,Low pressure tube wall thickness2.8~12.7mm,Medium pressure tube wall thickness3.7~21.4mm。Although the titanium tube has many advantages,but expensive,Welding is difficult,not yet widely adopted。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Properties and uses of various stainless steels:

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

pipe fittings:

Change direction in piping system、Pipe fittings are required for elevation or change of pipe diameter and branch pipes from the main pipe.。Due to the different shapes of the piping、Simple and complex,therefore,There are many types of pipe fittings。Commonly used pipe fittings have elbows、Tee、Reducer、pipe joint、Caps etc.。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)8mm x 1mm brass tube

Other pipe fittings:

1.head:It is a plug for closing the pipe end。Commonly used heads are oval and flat cover.。

2.boss,also called nozzle,It is a primary part of the automatic control instrument professional on the process pipeline,It is installed by a process piping professional,Therefore, the boss is also listed as a pipe fitting。

3.blind plate,Its function is to cut off the medium in the pipeline。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

flange:

Flange is a part of the process pipeline that acts as a connection。such as piping connected to process equipment,Connection of flanged valves and accessories on pipelines。Flanged connection provides flexibility of installation and removal,and reliable sealing。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)The medium conveyed by the process pipeline,various kinds,temperature and pressure are also different,Therefore, the strength and sealing of the flange,different requirements。In order to meet the needs of process piping installation engineering,There are many kinds of flanges with different structures and pressures。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Flange Gasket:

Leakage is the main form of failure of pipe flanges,It is related to the sealing structure type、The stiffness of the connected parts、performance of seals、operation and installation, and many other factors。Gasket is the main seal of flange connection,Therefore, the correct selection of gaskets is also the key to ensure that the flange connection does not leak。The flange gasket is based on the corrosiveness of the medium conveyed by the pipeline、temperature、There are many types of pressure and flange sealing surfaces.。Pipe flange gaskets have non-metallic gaskets,Semi-Metallic Gaskets and Metal Gaskets。

Rubber asbestos pad:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Rubber asbestos pads with asbestos fibers、Rubber as the main raw material, supplemented by rubber compounding agents and fillers,by mixing、hot roll forming、Made by vulcanization and other processes。Can be applied to many media,like steam、gas、Air、brine、Acids and bases, etc.。Thickness of rubber asbestos pads,Not uniform across disciplines,usually used3mmthick。Nominal diameter less than100mmthe flange,Its gasket thickness does not exceed2.5mm。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

use pressure,When used for flanged connections with smooth sealing surfaces, no more than2.5MPa。There are two kinds of rubber asbestos mats commonly used in industry,One is oil-resistant rubber asbestos pad,Suitable for temperature at200℃the following,Nominal pressure at2.5MPathe following,Transport general oil、Liquefied hydrocarbons、Media such as propane and acetone。High temperature oil resistant rubber asbestos pad,Use temperature up to350~380℃。The other is the medium pressure rubber asbestos pad can be used for200℃,PN2.5MPathe following steam、condensate、water、medium such as air。

Rubber mat:

Rubber mat,gasket made of rubber sheet,It has certain corrosion resistance,Commonly used in temperature60℃the following,pressure does not exceed1.0MPa,Deliver low pressure water,Pipe flange connection for media such as acid and alkali,The characteristic of this gasket is to use the elasticity of rubber,achieve better sealing effect,Therefore, it is also commonly used in the installation of cast iron flange valves.。HVAC South Society

Spiral wound gasket:

Wound gaskets are referred to as wound gaskets,It is made of metal steel strip and non-metallic packing strip.。Mainly include metal spiral wound gaskets,Graphite Wound Gasket,Graphite Metal Spiral Wound Gasket,Metal graphite spiral wound gasket,Inner and outer ring wound gasket, Metal Asbestos Spiral Wound Gasket,Metal tetrafluoro spiral wound gasket, etc.。This gasket has a low price、Materials can be fully utilized、Advantages of better sealing performance,The applicable nominal pressure is4.0MPathe following,Applicable temperature range,08Steel temperature up to450℃,0Cr13Wound pad made of steel strip,Use temperature up to540℃。This gasket is mostly used for smooth face flange connections,Its sealing surface does not need a waterline。Some winding pads,Also with locating ring,is to prevent the gasket from deviating from the center of the flange。The thickness of the gasket is generally4.5mm,diameter greater than1000mmTime,Gasket thickness is6~7mm。The thickness of the positioning ring is3mmabout。Metal strip material08No. Steel、0Cr13steel and1Cr18Ni9Tisteel etc.;Non-metallic belt material with characteristic asbestos、Flexible graphite、Teflon etc.。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Tooth pad:

Tooth pads are made of various metals,The material is ordinary carbon steel、Low-alloy steel and stainless acid-resistant steel, etc.,Its thickness is3~5mm。It uses the concentric toothed dense pattern to contact the flange sealing surface、Form multiple seals,Therefore, the sealing performance is better,Commonly used for the connection of concave and convex sealing face flanges。The highest nominal pressure can reach16.0MPa,Suitable for parts with high working temperature,Such as0Cr13Toothed pads,Its applicable temperature can reach530℃。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

metal washers:

There are many types of metal washers,Metal flat washers by shape,The cross-sectional area is oval、Octagonal Metal Washers and Lens Washers。According to the manufacturing material, there are low carbon steel、Stainless acid-resistant steel、copper、aluminum and lead etc.。

Metal flat washers are mostly used for smooth surface flat welding flanges,Withstands lower temperatures and pressures。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Oval and Octagonal Metal Washers,Mostly used for trapezoidal groove butt welding flange,The nominal pressure range is6.4~22.0MPa。Although the seal is good, the manufacturing is complicated,High precision is required。

lens pad,Named for its cross-sectional shape that resembles a lens,good sealing performance、in petrochemical production,Flange connection of various high temperature and high pressure pipelines,This gasket is widely used,The common nominal pressure range is16.0~32.0MPa。

There are rules for the use of metal washers,That is, the hardness of the gasket surface must be lower than the hardness of the flange sealing surface。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)8mm x 1mm brass tube(8mm x 1mm brass tube)

Instrumentation pipeline:

General provisions:

1)Instrumentation pipeline、Engineering Design of Lines,The instrument should be measured accurately、reliable signal transmission、reduce lag、Safe and economical、The lines are neat and beautiful and easy to construct and maintain。

2)fire and explosion hazard、corrosion、high temperature、damp、Vibration and other environment,When designing the instrument pipeline,Appropriate protective measures should be taken。

Instrument measurement pipeline diagram:

8mm x 1mm brass tube(8mm x 1mm brass tube)

The material of the measuring pipe:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)1)measuring pipes(Including valves and fittings)material,According to the physical properties of the measured medium、temperature、Comprehensive consideration of factors such as pressure level and environmental conditions。

2)Measuring pipe material for non-corrosive media,Carbon steel or stainless steel should be used。

Measuring pipe material for corrosive media,Process piping that should be selected and connected、The same equipment or materials with better corrosion resistance。

3)Measuring pipes and fittings valves,Use the same material。

4)The material of the sampling pipe of the analytical instrument,Stainless steel should be used。

Selection of measuring pipes:

1)Diameter selection of measuring pipes

8mm x 1mm brass tube

2)Sampling pipe diameter of analytical instrument,should be usedΦ6 mm×1mm,Φ8mm×1mmorΦ10 mm×1mm,The diameter of the return pipe and discharge pipe of the fast loop can be appropriately enlarged。

3)The wall thickness of the measuring pipeline should not be lower than the specific project“Pipe Material Grade Table”requirements in。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Pneumatic signal pipeline material selection:

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Note:“☆”Indicates applicable; “X”Indicates that it should not be used。

1) The diameter of the pneumatic signal pipeline,should be usedΦ6 mm×1 mmorΦ8 mm×1 mm。Other specifications are also available upon request。

2) Polyethylene pipe and nylon pipe(cable)The operating ambient temperature should conform to the applicable temperature range of the product。Fire-hazardous places and important occasions,Such materials should not be used。

3) When the production device has anti-static requirements,Polyethylene and nylon pipes are prohibited(cable)。

4)When a receiver box is installed in the production facility,From control room to takeover box,Multi-core tube cable should be used。The number of spare cores of the umbilical shall not be less than the number of working cores10%。Pneumatic line from takeover box to regulating valve or field instrument,should be usedPVCSheathed copper tube or stainless steel tube。

Commonly used materials pipeline material selection table(1)

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Commonly used materials pipeline material selection table(2)

8mm x 1mm brass tube

valve:

The valve is used to make the medium in the piping and equipment(liquid、gas、powder)Devices that flow or stop and control their flow。Valves are control components in pipeline fluid delivery systems,It is used to change the passage section and the flow direction of the medium,With diversion to prevent backflow、Voltage regulation、deadline、adjust、throttling、non-return、Diversion or overflow pressure relief and other functions。

By structural features,According to the direction in which the closing member moves relative to the valve seat, it can be divided into:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)1.truncated door:The closing piece moves along the center of the seat。

2.gate shape:Shutoff moves along vertical seat center。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)3.cocks and balls:The closing piece is a plunger or ball,Rotate around its own centerline。

4.Swing shape:The closure member rotates around an axis outside the seat。

5.saucer:Closing discs,Rotate around an axis in the seat。

6.spool valve:The closure slides perpendicular to the channel。

By purpose,According to the different uses of the valve, it can be divided into:

1.for breaking:Used to connect or cut off the pipeline medium,such as shut-off valve、gate、Ball valve、Butterfly valve, etc.。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)2.non-return:Used to prevent backflow of media,such as check valve。

3. For adjustment:Used to adjust the pressure and flow of the medium,such as regulating valve、pressure reducing valve。

4.for distribution:Used to change the flow direction of the medium、distribution medium,like a three-way cock、Dispense valve、slide valve, etc.。

5.safety valve:When the medium pressure exceeds the specified value,Used to drain excess media,Ensure the safety of piping systems and equipment,such as safety valve、accident valve。

6.Special Purpose:such as traps、Vent valve、Drain valve, etc.。

By drive,According to different driving methods can be divided into:

1.manual:by handwheel、handle、Lever or sprocket etc.,human driven,When transmitting large torque,Equipped with worm gear、Gears and other reduction gears。

2.electric:Driven by a motor or other electrical device。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)3.hydraulic:with the help of(water、Oil)to drive。

4.pneumatic:Driven by compressed air。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)press pressure,According to the nominal pressure of the valve can be divided into:

1.vacuum valve:absolute pressure<0.1Mpawhich is760mmhigh mercury valve,usually usedmm mercury ormmThe water column indicates pressure。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)2.low pressure valve:Nominal pressurePN≤1.6Mpathe valve(includePN≤1.6MPasteel valve)

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)3.Medium pressure valve:Nominal pressurePN2.5—6.4MPathe valve。

4.High pressure valve:Nominal pressurePN10.0—80.0MPathe valve。

5.Ultra high pressure valve:Nominal pressurePN≥100.0MPathe valve。

According to the temperature of the medium,According to the temperature of the medium when the valve is working, it can be divided into:

1.Ordinary valve:suitable for medium temperature-40℃~425℃valve。

2.High temperature valve:suitable for medium temperature425℃~600℃valve。

3.Heat Resistant Valve:suitable for medium temperature600℃above valve。

4.Cryogenic valve:suitable for medium temperature-40℃~-150℃valve。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)5.Cryogenic valve:suitable for medium temperature-150℃The following valves。

According to the nominal diameter,According to the nominal diameter of the valve, it can be divided into:

1.Small diameter valve:Nominal diameterDN<40mmthe valve。

2.Medium diameter valve:Nominal diameterDN50~300mmthe valve。

3.Large diameter valve:Nominal diameterDN350~1200mmthe valve。

4.Extra Large Diameter Valve:Nominal diameterDN≥1400mmthe valve。

According to the way of connecting with the pipeline,According to the connection method of valve and pipeline, it can be divided into;

1.Flange connection valve:Valve body with flange,Valve with flanges connected to pipelines。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)2.Thread connection valve:Valve body with internal thread or external thread,Valve with threaded connection with pipelines。

3.Welding connection valve:Valve body with weld,Valve with welding connection with pipelines。

4.Clamp connection valve:Valve body with a clip,Valve with pipe with pipe。

5.Case connection valve:Valve with card sets and pipelines。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube(8mm x 1mm brass tube)

8mm x 1mm brass tube(8mm x 1mm brass tube)

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Closing parts and valve seat seals working conditions:

Since the valve use is very wide,Therefore, the working conditions of the valve door cover are very different.。Pressure can be from vacuum to ultra high pressure,Temperature can-269℃arrive816℃,Some working temperatures can be reached1200℃,Working medium from non-corrosive media to various acid and alkali, etc.。From the stress of the sealing surface,It is squeezed and cut。From the perspective of abrasive,Wear and wear、Corrosion、Surface fatigue wear、Erosion, etc.。therefore,Compared to different working conditions should be selected according to different working conditions。

Valve body、Valve cover and valve plate(Valve flap)s material:

Valve body、Valve cover and valve plate(Valve flap)Is one of the main parts of the valve,Direct to withstand media pressure,The materials used must be in line with“Valve pressure and temperature level”Provisions。Common materials have the following:

one、grey cast iron:Gray cast iron is suitable for nominal pressurePN≤1.0MPa,Temperature-10℃~200℃Water、steam、Air、Gas and oil and other media。Gray cast iron zone:HT200、HT250、HT300、HT350。

two、Canuel cast iron:Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤2.5MPa,Temperature-30~300℃Water、steam、Air and oil media,Common grade:TH300—06、KTH330—08、KTH350—10。

three、Ductile iron:SuitablePN≤4.0MPa,Temperature-30~350℃Water、steam、Air and oil and other media。

Common grade:QT400—15、QT450—10、QT500—7。In view of the current domestic process level,Based on experience,suggestionPN≤2.5MPa,The valve is still used in the steel valve。

Four、Silicon ball ink cast iron:Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤0.25MPa,Temperature is below120℃Corrosive medium。

Fives、Carbon steel:Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤32.0MPa,Temperature-30~425℃Water、steam、Air、hydrogen、ammonia、Nitrogen and petroleum products and other media。Common gradeWC1、WCB、ZG25 High quality steel20、25、30 And low alloy structural steel16Mn。

six、Copper alloy:SuitablePN≤2.5MPa Water、seawater、oxygen、Air、Oil products and other media,Temperature-40~250℃Steam media,Commonly used gradeZGnSn10Zn2(Tin bronze),H62、Hpb59—1(brass)、QAZ19—2、QA19—4(Aluminum bronze)。

seven、High temperature copper:Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤17.0MPA、temperature≤570℃Steam and petroleum products。Common gradeZGCr5Mo,1Cr5M0.ZG20CrMoV,ZG15Gr1Mo1V, 12CrMoV , WC6, WC9Equal license。Specific selection must be regulated according to valve pressure and temperature specification。

Eight、Low temperature steel,Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤6.4Mpa,temperature≥—196℃Ethylene,Propylene,Liquid natural gas,Liquid nitrogen and other media,Common grade)haveZG1Cr18Ni9、0Cr18Ni9、1Cr18Ni9Ti、ZG0Cr18Ni9;

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Nine、Stainless acid-resistant,Suitable for nominal pressurePN≤6.4Mpa 、temperature≤200℃Nitric acid,Acetic acid,Common gradeZG0Cr18Ni9T、ZG0Cr18Ni10<Nitric acid>, ZG0Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti 、ZG1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti<Acid and urea>。

Sealing surface material:

The sealing surface is the most critical working surface of the valve,The quality of the sealing surface is related to the life of the valve.,Usually the sealing material should be considered corrosion resistance,Wrapping,Erosion,Antioxidant factors。

Usually two major categories:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)(one)Soft material

1、rubber(Need rubber,Fluoro rubber, etc.)

2、plastic(PTFE,Nylon, etc.)

(two)Hard sealing material

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)1、Copper alloy(Low pressure valve)

2、Chrome stainless steel(Used in ordinary high high medium pressure valves)

3、Tai Li alloy(For high temperature and high pressure valves and strong corrosion valves)

4、F(Corrosive medium)

Valler material:

Commonly used valve stem materials have the following。

one、Carbon steel:

Used for low pressure and medium temperature300℃Water、Steam medium,General selectionA5 Ordinary carbon steel。

Used in medium pressure and medium temperature do not exceed450℃Water、Steam medium,General selection35 Premium carbon steel。

two、alloy steel:

For medium pressure and high pressure,Medium temperature does not exceed450℃Water、steam、Petroleum and other media,General selection40Cr(Chrome)。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)High pressure、Medium temperature does not exceed540℃Water、Steam and other media,Optional38CrMoALA Nitriding steel。

High pressure、Medium temperature does not exceed570℃Steam media,General selection25Cr2MoVA Chromolymolymolymolymolymolymolymolymented steel。

three、Stainless acid-resistant

For medium pressure and high pressure、Medium temperature does not exceed450℃Non-corrosive medium with weak corrosive media,Optional 1Cr13、2Cr13、3Cr13 Chrome stainless steel。

When used for corrosive media,OptionalCr17Ni2、1Cr18Ni9Ti、Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti、Cr18Ni12Mo3TiWaiting for stainless acid resistancePH15-7Mo Precipitated harden steel。

Four、Heat-resistant steel

Used in medium temperature does not exceed600℃High temperature valve can be used when4Cr10Si2Mo Mark-body heat resistant steel and4Cr14Ni14W2Mo Austeni-body heat resistant steel。

Valve nut material:

Valve nut during the valve opening and closing,Direct to withstand the axial force,Therefore, there must be a certain strength。At the same time, it is threaded with the stem.,Requires small friction coefficient,Do not rust and avoid bitterness。

one、Copper alloy

The friction coefficient of copper alloy is small,Does not rust,One of the materials currently adopted。forPg<1.6Mpa The low pressure valve can be usedZHMn58-2-2 Cast brass。forPg16-6.4Mpa Medium pressure valve can be usedZQAL9-4 Wuxi bronze。For high pressure valves,ZHAL66-6-3-2 Cast brass。

two、steel

When working conditions are not allowed to use copper alloy,Optional35、40 Waiting for high quality carbon steel,2Cr13、1Cr18Ni9、Cr17Ni2 Soil-resistant。Work conditions do not allow the following conditions。

1、Used in electric valves,Valve nut with melon clutch,Heat treatment is required to achieve high hardness or surface hardness。

2、Working medium or surrounding environment is not suitable for selecting copper alloy,Such as corrosion of copper。

Steel valve rod nut,Pay special attention to the bitterness of threads。

Commonly used inner material combination:

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8mm x 1mm brass tube

In the table13CrExpressCr13Stainless steel,Such as1Cr13、2Cr13Wait。

STLwhich isSTELLITE(Carbide such as cobalt-based hard alloy, etc.)。

MonelMonole alloy,HastelloyHartse alloy。InconelThat is, BEM。

Two materials separated by slash,The valve seat sealing surface material can be used in one of two materials,gate(Valve flap)Sealing surface material is another。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Fastener material:

The fasteners mainly include bolts、Baby bolts and nuts。Fasteners directly under pressure on the valve,Prevent media

Important role of external switch,Therefore, the materials selected must ensure sufficient strength and impact toughness at the temperature of the use.。

Select the following table when selecting the fastener material according to the medium pressure and temperature.:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)8mm x 1mm brass tube

Used to adjust valve high temperature bolts:

Work temperature350℃The above bolts should choose to use heat-resistant steel。Adjusting valve bolted steel main resistant steel mainly:Low alloy pearls heat resistant steel、High chromium martensite stainless steel、Austenitic stainless steel、Iron nickel base and nickel-based alloy heat resistant steel。

Martensite stainless steel:Chromium12%~17%Martensitic stainless steel bolts have better anti-loops,Higher persistence plasticity and low gap sensitivity。Material toughness and thermal strength are better,Also have good vibration damping performance and smaller linear expansion coefficient,Anti-atmospheric and seawater environmental corrosion。Martensite stainless steel bolts apply to environmental conditions for impact load and corrosion media。Do not exceed the highest operating temperature600℃Time,Although its strength is lower than the austenitic stainless steel,But there is still quite intensity。But the low temperature performance of martensite stainless steel is poor。Lower than0℃The following environment,The toughness of the material will lose,Recipient phenomenon。

Low alloy pearl resistant steel can be used at higher temperatures。General work temperature is lower than480℃Bolts can choose chromium molybdenum steel,Work temperature540℃The following should use chromium molybdenum vanadium steel。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)These two types of materials are better in short-term use in the conditioning condition.,Long-term use of better anti-loop performance in normal fire tempering state。Chromium molybdenum vanadium steel is low in the back room temperature of the fire.,exist540℃Have a persistence gap sensitive,Decreased persistent intensity。

Martensite stainless steel:Chromium12%~17%Martensitic stainless steel bolts have better anti-loops,Higher persistence plasticity and low gap sensitivity。Material toughness and thermal strength are better,Also have good vibration damping performance and smaller linear expansion coefficient,Anti-atmospheric and seawater environmental corrosion。Martensite stainless steel bolts apply to environmental conditions for impact load and corrosion media。Do not exceed the highest operating temperature600℃Time,Although its strength is lower than the austenitic stainless steel,But there is still quite intensity。But the low temperature performance of martensite stainless steel is poor。Lower than0℃The following environment,The toughness of the material will lose,Recipient phenomenon。

Austenitic stainless steel:Austenite18-8Stainless steel bolts have good anti-comprehensive corrosion performance and high temperature mechanical properties,Can600℃Used at high temperatures。And have good low temperature performance,Keep quite intensity at lower temperatures。However, its disadvantage is that the yield strength of the material is low.,And cannot improve its mechanical properties by heat treatment。Austenitic precipitated hardening stainless steel is during heat treatment,Precipitated hardening by aging treatment,Examples of the compounds of the dispersion distributed carbide and metal,Thus increasing strength,At the same time, it still maintains the original stainless steel originally corrosion resistance and antioxidation resistance.,This bolt is650℃The following uses anti-loop performance is more stable,But its alloy content is high,The heat treatment process is more complicated,Material price is more expensive。

Iron nickel base and nickel-based alloy:Work temperature570℃The above bolts can be selected from ferrous nickel group or nickel-based alloy.。Control valve This type of material is generally cobalt,Special good high temperature performance。In the United StateswaspalogF,Can760℃Below;M252Nickel-based alloy can be used840℃,Cr14Ni25MoIron nickel base alloy can also be used650℃;High temperature alloys produced in my country can also be used as steel for high temperature bolts.。

filler:

Filler on the valve is used to fill the valve cover filler room space,To prevent the medium from leaking via a valve stem and a valve cover。

Filler can be divided into soft filler and hard filler:

1)Soft filler:Series,Cannabis、flax、cotton、Jute, etc.,Or by a mineral,Stallet fiber,Or woven line rope from the cotton fiber inner wire and external graphite powder,There are also compressed forming fillers,And flexible graphite filler materials。Plant filler is cheaper,Commonly used100℃The following low voltage valve;Mineral filler can be used450-500℃Valve。In recent years, rubber has been used in recent yearsOThe structure of the mold is gradually promoted,But the medium temperature is generally limited60℃the following。The filler on the high temperature and high pressure valve also has a pure stone cotton plus graphite powder.。

2)Hard filler:That is, metal or metal and asbestos、Filler mixed with graphite and polytetrafluoroethylene pressure sintering,Metal filler is less。

Select the filler to be based on the media、Temperature and pressure,Commonly used materials have the following:

1)Oil immersion cotton rope,Can be selected by the following table。

8mm x 1mm brass tube

Note:Shape codeF Representative,Wear heart or one to multi-layer;Y Representative,The middle is a twisted core,Outside is one to multi-layered;N Twisting。

2)Rubber asbestos rope:

3)Graphite stone rope:Coated graphite powder on the asbice rope,Canteen450℃above,Pressure can be achieved16Mpa,Generally suitable for high pressure steam。Recently, it has gradually adopted a compressed character filler.,Single-ring placement,Good sealing。

4)PTFE:This is a kind of packing that is currently using widely used。Especially suitable corrosive media,But the temperature cannot be200℃。Generally, it is used to compress or bond.。

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Gasket material:

The gasket is used to fill two bond faces(Sealing surface between the valve body and the valve cover)All irregularities,To prevent the media from the binding plane。

Requirements for gaskets:The gasket material has certain elasticity and plasticity and sufficient strength at operating temperature.,To ensure sealed。At the same time, there is a good corrosion resistance。

The gasket can be divided into soft and hard,Soft quality is generally non-metallic materials,Cardboard、rubber、Asbestos Rubber Sheet,Polytetrafluoroethylene, etc.。Hardware is generally a metal material or a metal bag、Metal and asbestos are wrapped around。

There are many shapes in the gasket.,Flattened、round、Oval、Toothed、Leisure and other special shapes。

Materials for metal gaskets are generally used08、10、20 Premium carbon steel and1Cr13、1Cr18Ni9 Stainless steel,Processing accuracy and surface finish requirements are high,Suitable for high temperature and high pressure valves。

Non-metal gasket material is generally better plastic,Can reach seal with a lot of pressure。Applicable to low temperature low pressure valve。

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Metal material corrosion resistance10Level standard:

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related information:

Stainless steel naming method:

The carbon content in the steel number is stated in thousands.。

E.g“2Cr13”The average carbon content of steel is2‰;Rosewash≤0.3‰or≤0.8‰By,Crown of the steel number“00”and“0”Repay,E.g00Cr17Ni14Mo2(C≤0.3‰Cr17%Ni14%Mo2%)、0Cr18Ni9(C≤0.8‰Cr18%Ni9%) Wait。

2)Main alloy element in steel,Except for individual microalloying elements,Generally expressed in a few percent。As average alloy content<1.5%Time,The element symbol is generally marked in the steel number.,Not marked,But in special cases, confusing,Digitally labeled numbers after element symbols“1”,For example steel number“12CrMoV”and“12Cr1MoV”,The former chromium content is0.4~0.6%,Latter0.9~1.2%,The remaining composition is all the same。When the alloy element average content≥1.5%、≥2.5%、≥3.5%…… Time,The content should be indicated after the element symbol,Can be expressed2、3、4…… Wait。E.g18Cr2Ni4WA。

3)Vanadium in steelV、titaniumTi、aluminumAL、boronB、Rare earthREOther alloy elements,Partial microalloy element,Although contained Very low quantity,Should still be marked in the steel number。E.g20MnVB Steel。Vanadium0.07~0.12%,Boron0.001~0.005%。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Austenitic stainless steel:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Austenitic stainless steel means that there is a normal temperature“Austenite tissue”(Solid solution of carbon in iron characteristic:Surgery cubic crystal)Stainless steel。Steel in steelCrabout18%、Ni 8%~10%、Cabout0.1%Time,Stable austenite tissue。Austenitic chromium nickel stainless steel includes famous18Cr-8NiSteel and on this basisCr、NiContent and joinMo、Cu、Si、Nb、TiThe elements have developed highCr-NiSeries。Austenitic stainless steel wireless and high toughness and plasticity,But low strength,It is impossible to enhance the phase change,Can only be strengthened by cold processing,JoiningS,Ca,Se,TeEqual elements,Has good cutting。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)304Stainless steel:

304type:Widely used material。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Can withstand a general rust,Resistance to process medium etching(However, the high temperature state containing concentrated acid and chloride components may occur),

Can resist Machine compound、Dye and extensive Various inorganic compounds。

304Ltype(Low carbon),Sulfacidase with nitric nitric resistant and medium temperature and concentration, Widely used as liquid gas storage tanks,Used as a low temperature equipment(304N)、Appliance Other Consumer Products,kitchen equipment、medical Institute equipment、Transportation tool、Wastewater treatment device。

316Stainless steel:

316type:Compare304Type a slightly more nickel,Contain2%─3%Molybdenum,Corrosion resistance ratio304Type,Especially in chloride media tending to cause pixel。316Type development is used as a sulfite pulp machine,Because of its durable sulfate。and,Its use has been expanded to process many chemicals in the processing industry。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)317type:contain3%—4%Molybdenum。

Low temperature steel:

Generally, low temperature finger is less than-29~-196℃Within range,Be with-196~-269℃Ultra low temperature range。Petrochemical enterprise regulations-20℃Even low temperature。General carbon steel、Low-alloy steel、Ferrite steel decline in toughness under low temperature,Brittle rise,This phenomenon is called the refractory phenomenon of material。In order to ensure the performance of materials,Not only requires material to have sufficient strength during normal temperature、toughness、Processability and good welding performance,Moreover, the material is required to have an immigration ability at low temperatures.。Also material shrinks at low temperatures,Different part shrinkage rates are caused by leakage of certain sealing sites。also,Austenitic stainless steel in martensite transition temperature,Some of the austenite transforms into martensite, causing volume changes to the valve leakage is also an important reason.。therefore,To study the materials of all parts of the valve、Structural characteristics to prevent gaps from low temperature。

Effects of various elements on the performance and organization of stainless steel:

Decision effect of chromium in stainless steel:There is only one element that determines the elements of stainless steel.,This is chrome,Each stainless steel contains a certain amount of chrome。So far,Stainless steel without chromium。Chromium becomes the main element of determining stainless steel performance,The fundamental reason is to add chrome to steel as alloy elements.,Promote the contradictory movement within it to the development of the side that is conducive to resisting corrosion damage。

Nickel is an excellent corrosion-resistant material,It is also an important alloying element of alloy steel.。Nickel is an austenite-forming element in steel,But low carbon nickel steel needs to obtain pure austenite structure,nickel content to reach24%;and only nickel27%Only when the corrosion resistance of steel in certain media changes significantly。So nickel alone cannot make up stainless steel。But when both nickel and chromium are present in stainless steel,Nickel-containing stainless steel has many valuable properties。 Based on the above situation, it can be seen that,The role of nickel as an alloying element in stainless steel,Because it changes the structure of high chromium steel,So that the corrosion resistance and process performance of stainless steel can be improved to some extent。

Manganese and nitrogen can replace nickel in chromium-nickel stainless steel

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)The advantages of chromium-nickel austenitic steels are many though,However, in recent decades, due to the combination of nickel-based heat-resistant alloys and nickel-containing20%A large number of development and application of the following hot-strength steels,As well as the growing chemical industry, the demand for stainless steel is increasing,The nickel deposits are small and concentrated in a few areas,Therefore, the contradiction between supply and demand of nickel has appeared in the world。So in the field of stainless steel and many other alloys(Such as steel for large casting and forging、tool steel、heat-strength steel, etc.)middle,especially nickel resource-poor countries,The scientific research and production practice of nickel-saving and nickel-replacement with other elements have been extensively carried out,In this regard, manganese and nitrogen are used to replace nickel in stainless steel and heat-resistant steel.。

The effect of manganese on austenite is similar to that of nickel。But be more precise,The role of manganese is not to form austenite,Rather, it reduces the critical quenching rate of the steel,Increases the stability of austenite on cooling,Inhibits the decomposition of austenite,Keep the austenite formed at high temperature to room temperature。

Titanium or Niobium to prevent intergranular corrosion。

Molybdenum and copper can improve the corrosion resistance of some stainless steels。

grey cast iron:

grey cast iron Grey cast iron with higher carbon content(for2.7%~4.0%)

malleable cast iron Casting from molten iron with a certain chemical composition into a white blank,annealed cast iron,have higher strength、Plasticity and impact toughness,Can partially replace carbon steel。Malleable iron grades are“KTH”(“Iron black”Three-character Hanyu Pinyin prefix)or“KTZ”(“Iron beads”Three-character Hanyu Pinyin prefix)Minimum tensile strength value attached(MPa)and the percentage of minimum elongation at break。e.g. numberKTH 350—10Indicates that the minimum tensile strength is350 MPa、The minimum elongation at break is10%Blackheart Malleable Iron,Ferritic Malleable Iron;KTZ 650—02Indicates that the minimum tensile strength is650 MPa、The minimum elongation at break is2%pearlitic malleable iron。

Carbon steel:

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Carbon content is less than1.35%,iron removal、Carbon and silicon within limits、manganese、phosphorus、Sulfur and other impurities,Steel without other alloying elements。The properties of carbon steel mainly depend on the carbon content。increased carbon content,strength of steel、Increased hardness,plasticity、Reduced toughness and weldability。compared to other steels,The earliest use of carbon steel,low cost,Wide performance range ,maximum amount。for nominal pressurePN≤32.0MPa,temperature is-30-425℃water、steam、Air、hydrogen、ammonia、Nitrogen and petroleum products and other media。Commonly used grades areWC1、WCB、ZG25and high-quality steel20、25、30and low alloy structural steel16MnCarbon steel by chemical composition(carbon content)low carbon steel(carbon content from0.10%to0.30% )、Carbon steel(carbon content0.25%~0.60%)and high carbon steel(carbon content from0.60%to1.70%,Can be hardened and tempered)。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Monel alloy, also known as nickel alloy,It is a kind of metal nickel as the base to add copper、iron、Alloys made of other elements such as manganese。Monel alloy has good corrosion resistance,silvery white。

Hastelloy is a type of nickel-based alloy,Currently mainly divided intoB、C、Gthree series,It is mainly used for iron baseCr-NiorCr-Ni-MoStainless steel、Strong corrosive medium where non-metallic materials cannot be used。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Ductile iron is obtained by spheroidization and inoculation treatment to obtain spheroidal graphite,Effectively improve the mechanical properties of cast iron,Especially improved plasticity and toughness,resulting in higher strength than carbon steel。

Pig iron contains more carbon than2%iron carbon alloy,The carbon content of industrial pig iron is generally in2.5%--4%,and containsC、SI、Mn、S、Petc. elements,Yes Blast furnace smelted products from iron ore。

Austenitic stainless steel,Refers to stainless steel with austenitic structure at room temperature。contained in steelCrabout18%、Ni 8%~10%、Cabout0.1%Time,Has a stable austenite structure。Austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels include the well-known18Cr-8NiSteel and on top of this increaseCr、Nicontent and addMo、Cu、Si、Nb、Tiand other elements developed highCr-NiSeries Steel。Austenitic stainless steel is non-magnetic and has high toughness and plasticity,but lower strength,Impossible to strengthen by phase transition,Can only be strengthened by cold working,if joinS,Ca,Se,Teetc. elements,good machinability。

Martensitic stainless steel is mainly chromium content in12%-18%range of low carbon or high carbon steels。The martensitic stainless steels widely used in various countries are as follows3kind:

1.Low and medium carbon13%Crsteel

2.high carbon18%Crsteel

3.low carbon nickel(about2%)of17%Crsteel

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Martensitic stainless steel with high strength and corrosion resistance,Can be used to make machine parts such as blades for steam turbines(1Cr13)、Shafts and tie rods for steam equipment(2Cr13),and parts that work in corrosive media such as valves、bolts etc(4Cr13)。Steel grades with higher carbon content(4Cr13、9Cr18)for the manufacture of medical devices、table knife、Measuring tools、spring etc.。

Pearlitic heat-resistant steel

Low alloy heat-resistant steel with pearlite or bainite matrix。There are mainly chrome molybdenum and chrome molybdenum vanadium series,Later, it developed(as chrome、Tungsten、molybdenum、vanadium、titanium、Boron etc.)Composite alloyed steel grades,The lasting strength and service temperature of steel gradually increase。

The total amount of general alloying elements is at most5%about,Its tissue is in addition to pearlite,Also includes bainitic steels。Such steel is450~620℃Good high temperature creep strength and process performance,and good thermal conductivity,Small expansion coefficient,lower price,widely used in making450~620℃Wide range of heat-resistant structural materials。Such as boiler steel pipes for power stations,steam turbine impeller、rotor、fastener、High pressure vessels for oil refining and chemical industry、Waste heat boiler、Heat cooker and heat exchanger tube, etc.。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)Nickel-based alloy refers to650~1000℃A type of alloy with higher strength and certain antioxidant corrosion capacity at high temperatures。

Representative materials for nickel-based alloys have:

1,Incoloyalloy,Such asIncoloy800,Main component;32Ni-21Cr-Ti,Al;Heat alloy;

2,Inconelalloy,Such asInconel600,Main component is;73Ni-15Cr-Ti,Al;Heat alloy;

3,Hastelloyalloy,Hartse alloy,HaoC-276,Main component;56Ni-16Cr-16Mo-4W;Abortion alloy;

4,Monelalloy,Monel alloy,For example, Monel400,Main component is;65Ni-34Cu;Abortion alloy;

Tai Li alloy(Stellite)It is a hard alloy that can resist various types of wear and corrosion and high temperature oxidation。That is, the cobalt chrome tungsten(molybdenum)Alloy or cobalt-based alloy,Si Li alloy is made of AmericansElwood HaynessAt1907Annual invention。The Si Li alloy is the main component with cobalt,Contained quantity nickel、chromium、Tungsten and a small amount of molybdenum、niobium、Tantalum、titanium、Luanjiao-like alloy element,I also contain a type of alloy with iron.。Different according to the components in the alloy,They can be made of wire,Powder for hard surface,Thermal Spray、Spray welding,Can also be made into cast forging and powder metallurgical parts。

(8mm x 1mm brass tube)This article comes from the Internet,Partial material《Instrument pipes and valves》,author:Chen Yuguo。HVAC Social Site。

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