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Copper Tube Information

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brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting

author:MF manufacturerstime:2022-03-14 14:33:27

brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting

Copper having excellent conductivity、Thermal conductivity、Corrosion、Ductility and a certain strength and other characteristics。In pure copper(Copper)Added10I kind of alloying elements,Forming various types of copper alloy solid,The brass and zinc;Plus nickel copper-nickel alloy;Silicon plus silicon bronze;Alcan aluminum bronze,。


Copper and copper alloys are available
Brazing、Resistance WeldingImplement the connection process, etc.,In the industrial developed today、Welding has been dominant。useSMAW、TIGweld、MIGweldOther welding processes easily realized in copper and copper alloys。Effects of copper and copper alloy welding process difficulties have four main elements:First, the impact of high thermal conductivity。Heat greater than the thermal conductivity of copper steel7-11Time,When the welding process parameters used in almost the same thickness of steel,It is difficult to melt copper,Filler metal and the base material can not be well fused。Second, the tendency of hot cracking in the weld joint。Welding,Wherein the bath of copper and impurities, low melting point eutectic,Copper and copper alloys have significantly hot shortness,Thermal cracking。Third, defects pores much more serious than carbon steel,Primarily hydrogen hole。Fourth, the change in performance of welded joints。Grain coarsening,Plastic drop,Fall in corrosion resistance。



1、Copper welding


Copper welding methods aregas welding、Manual arc welding of carbon、Arc welding and manual weldingAnd other methods,Large structures may also be usedAutomatic Welding

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(1) Gas welding copper welding is the most commonly usedButt joints,Lap joint and the tees as little as possible。It can be two kinds of welding wire,One is a deoxidizing element wire comprising,Such as silk201、202;The other is a Cut into strips like purple copper and base metal,Using aerosol301As flux。Neutral flame welding copper should be used。


(2)The copper electrode arc welding。Thickness greater than weldment4When mm,Must be preheated before welding,Preheat temperature is generally in400~500℃。Copper107Electrode welding,
Power should DCRP。It should be used short arc welding,Electrode not suitable for weaving。Electrode for reciprocating linear motion,Shaped weld may be improved。Long welds should be used to gradually withdraw welding method。Welding speed should be faster。Multilayer welding,It must be thoroughly cleaned between layers Slag。Welding should be carried out in a well-ventilated place,In order to prevent copper poisoning。After welding seam applied flat hammer percussion,Eliminate stress and improve weld quality。


(3)Handmade copper TIG。When copper TIG,Wire used in silk201(Special copper wire)And silk202,Also used copper wire,Such asT2。Deal with the oxide film and the edge of the workpiece welding surface before welding wire、Oil and dirt must be cleaned,Avoid pinholes、Slag and other defects。Cleanup methods are mechanical cleaning and chemical clean-up method。


Butt joint is smaller than the thickness3When mm,Without groove;Thickness of3~10When mm, openVShaped groove,Bevel angle60º~70º;Thicker than10When mm,openXShaped groove,Bevel angle60º~70º;In order to avoid incomplete penetration,Generally do not leave a blunt edge。The sheet thickness and groove size,Assembly gap in the butt joint0.5~1.5Select the millimeter range。


Copper TIG,Usually DC is connected,That tungsten then negative。In order to eliminate pores,Ensure reliable root of the weld penetration and fusion,We must increase welding speed,Reducing the consumption of argon,And preheated weldment。Thickness of less than3When mm,Preheat temperature150~300℃;Thicker than3When mm,Preheat temperature350~500℃。Preheating temperature is not too high,Otherwise the mechanical properties of welded joints is reduced。


There are carbon arc welding copper,Carbon arc electrode for use with a carbon electrode and a graphite electrode。Copper wire used in arc welding of carbon and the same welding time,The base material may also be cut strips,Available copper gas welding flux,The aerosol301Wait。

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2、Brass welding

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)
Brazing methods are:
gas welding、Carbon arc welding、SMAW and GTAW


(1)Brass gas welding。Due to the low temperature welding flame,Welding the evaporation of zinc in brass is less than when using welding,Therefore, in brazing the,Gas welding is the most commonly used method。

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)
Brass welding wire used are:Silk221、Silk222And silk224Wait,These silicon-containing welding wire、tin、Iron and other elements,It can be prevented and reduction of a molten bath of zinc evaporation and burning,Help to ensure the properties of the weld and to prevent blow hole。Brass used welding flux powder solid and a gas flux types,Acid methyl ester by the gas flux and methanol;The aerosol flux301。

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)
(2)Brass SMAW。Welding Copper Brass except that227And copper237outside,Can also self-made electrodes。


When the brass SMAW,DC power supply should be positive connection,Electrode negative。Welding surface before welding should be carefully clean。Usually the included angle of not less than60º~70º,To improve weld,To preheat weldment 150~250℃。It is operated with a short arc welding,And swing back and forth without lateral,Only for linear movement,Higher welding speed。And the sea、Weldments brass and other corrosive media in contact with ammonia,Annealing after welding must be,To eliminate welding Collusion force。


(3)Brass TIG。Brass Brass standard TIG welding may be employed:Silk221、Silk222And silk224, Materials may also be employed with the same composition as the base material filler。

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Welding can DCSP,You can also use exchange。When AC welding,Zinc evaporation access timing lighter than DC。Usually without preheating before welding,Only when the difference between the thickness of the relatively large preheating。Welding speed should be as fast as possible。Welds should be heated after welding300~400℃Annealing treatment,Eliminate the welding,Weldment to prevent cracks during use。


(4)Carbon arc welding of brass。When carbon arc welding of brass,The selection of the base metal of the wire221、Silk222、Silk224And other wire,It may also be made of brass wire under。Welding may be employed aerosol301Etc. for flux。Short arc welding operation should,To reduce evaporation and burning of Zn。 

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)
Direct-currentTIGWidely used welding process for welding of copper and copper alloy,Air welded good forming,Excellent internal and external quality,Under the protection of argon,Puddle pure,Small pores,Small thermal cracking influence,Easy to master the operation。thickness≤4mm When can not preheat,Directly with argon preheater,Bath temperature to be close600℃Time,Filler wire may be added to the base material melted,The welding。Thickness greater than4mmOf copper,Copper should be preheated400~600℃。copper Alloy welding preheat200~300℃。300TSP,315TXDirect-currentTIGCopper may be welded welder、Silicon bronze、Phosphor Bronze、brass、Copper alloy such as copper-nickel alloy。300WP5、 300/500WX4AC and DCTIGAvailable AC welderTIGWelding aluminum bronze(Removal of surface oxide film AC square wave)And DCTIGWelding Copper above。

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In recent years,,useMIGMore Construction Method of Copper and Copper Alloys,In particular, the thickness≥3mmAluminum bronze、Silicon bronze and cupronickel best selectionMIGWelding method。thickness3~14mm or>14mmCopper and copper alloy is almost always selectedMIGweld,Because of the high deposition efficiency、Deep penetration、Fast welding speed(GenerallyTIGWelding3~4Time),Efficient、high quality、Economic cost Require。Should meet the requirements preheating temperature before welding Copper(Copper400~600℃,Copper Alloy200~300℃),Wire and the base material sufficiently similar chemical,Purity argon≥99.98%


3、Copper and its alloys and stainless steel welding method

The main problem with stainless steel, copper and its alloys the weld area and weld fusion zone is easy to crack penetration and heat affected zone cracking,Weld filler metal improper selection especially。


The use of stainless steel as Austrian Di filler metal material,Since copper is Olympic Di tissue forming element,Di tissue welding remains Olympic presence of liquid copper layer of a low melting point at the grain crystalline grains,It can easily lead to cracks,


When the switch Monel metal as filler material(Such asNi70%+Cu30%)Due to the higher nickel weld,Melting of copper-mediated increase in body tissues Olympic Di,Copper can reduce the deleterious effects,Tends to decrease the thermal cracking。

Another example is the use of certain copper alloys(The aluminum bronze)When a metal material and copper as a filler,Since the higher the copper content of the weld,Therefore, when a low melting point copper crystal grain body liquid more Olympic Di,There are certain healing,Therefore, less heat cracking tendency,


However, the weld penetrationFe,M,CrBrittle weld the like,Reduce the impact toughness,And may still produce cracks in the permeate side of the heat-affected zone of stainless steel,Therefore, only when the performance requirements of mechanical joints,Such material may only fill metal employed。

Because whether in liquid or solid nickel-copper can be infinitely miscible,Thus welding using pure nickel(Ni≥90%,Fe≤8%)As filling the metal material,Can greatly remove harmful effect of copper,But also effectively prevent the penetration of cracks,It is preferably filled with a metallic material。

Welding Technology:

1. Selection of pure nickel wire as a filler,Cast iron electrode can also be usedZ308Coating removal clean as a filler wire。

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)2. Copper or stainless steel in the(Welding the contact surfaces)Surfacing transition layer,Then welded。

3. Welding edges of the workpieces,An oxide layer to be removed,To the metal with sandpaper until the bright。

4. Since copper heat faster,Nickel-arc copper should be slightly biased one,Only conducive to good weld fusion。

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)5. AC welding using,It can reduce evaporation during metal melting,In particular, the aluminum bronze and stainless steel welded。

6. Welding current according to the size and thickness of the workpiece,Accurately perform fine adjustment。

7. Argon flow,for12~15Rise/Minute,The best selection of high purity argon。


4、Joining copper and steel

method one:Gas welding,Plus copper wire。

Method Two:With TIG,Plus copper wire。

(brass 1 2 to 3 8 tube solder fitting)Method Three:useJ507welding rod,Wrapped around outsideΦ1.25Pure copper wire(If the enameled wire must be clean),Welding premenstrual350℃Baking2h,Drops100℃When used with the check。Before welding the workpiece clean,Warm-up with oxyacetylene flame,Preheat temperature650~700℃,The welding process should be maintained at this temperature。Electrode electionΦ3.2mmof,Limits on the current election,Of welding speed5~225px/min,Method welding DCRP。

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To ensure penetration,In the copper side of the arc to stay a little longer,Arc force using copper and steel to make sufficiently uniform mixing。The wound sheet thickness determined density level,General pitch2~3mm,Copper wire and the core wire is not in contact with the jaw and。

According to the principle for,Most metals and copper unlimited miscible。When using copper wire or the welding wire may be brass。For example with copper welding,Since the thermal conductivity of copper fast,If your thick copper plate, then,It must first preheated to copper200~300Spend,Gas welding or TIG welding can be

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Since the melting point of copper is higher than the steel sheet near500Spend,So when welding,Arc to one side plate,The heat from the arc emphasis on steel,Other side of the steel sheet after the arc weld pool formed slightly inclined to one side of copper,To send a wire to the weld pool。


5、Welding copper and aluminum

Welding characteristics of aluminum and copper

Aluminum and copper can be welded、Pressure welding and brazing,In most applications wherein pressure welding。


The main difficulty is the melting point of the welding of aluminum and copper differ greatly(Reach423°C),Welding difficult to simultaneously melt。Aluminum oxide high temperature strong,When the need for soldering oxide in the bath to prevent oxidation and removal measures。Aluminum and copper infinitely miscible in the liquid state,In the limited solid solution。Aluminum and copper can form a variety of intermetallic compounds based solid solution phase,IncludingAlCu2、Al2Cu3、AlCu、Al2CuWait。aluminum-Copper content in the copper alloy12%~13%(Quality Score)Or less,Best overall performance,Thus welding the weld metal should try to control the content of aluminum-copper alloy of copper does not exceed this range,Or with aluminum-based alloy。


Aluminum and copper are very good ductility metal,Therefore it is suitable for use both pressure welding,Especially cold pressure welding、Friction welding、Bonding Process。


The main points are as follows welding process:


Welding welding: Aluminum and copper combination are best adopted argon arc welding。Welding,The arc center should be biased toward the copper plate,Offset is equivalent to thickness1/2,Melting at both sides。Pure aluminum or aluminum can be used-Silicon-filled wire。Adding alloy elements in weld metal can improve the quality of aluminum copper welding joints,Join zinc、Magnesium can limit copper to aluminum transition;Add calcium、Magnesium can activate surface、Easy to fill the gap of dendritic crystallization;Titanium、zirconium、Molybdenum and other difficult melt helps to refine tissue;Silicon、Zinc can reduce intermetallic compounds。The addition method can be applied to copper to weld the surface of copper.。

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Buried arc welding,Connector is shown1Shown。Deviation value of arc and copper groove upper edgel=(0.5~0.6)δ,δWelding thickness。Copper sideJShape,Aluminum side is straight。existJPresetφ3mmAluminum wire。When the thickness of the workpiece is10mmTime,Welding diameterφ2.5mm,Wire speed332m·h-1,Welding current400~420A,Arc voltage38~39V,Welding speed21m·h-1。Weld weld metalw(Cu)exist8%~10%Scope,Satisfaction socket mechanical properties。


Pressure welding:(1)Friction welding。Bar is docking,Workpiece needs an annealing,Flat engagement surface,And weld as soon as possible,To avoid staining or re-forming oxide film。The temperature of the friction welding should be lower than the aluminum copper eutectic temperature(548°C),Generally controlled460~480°C。This can prevent both brittle intermetallic compounds,Can guarantee sufficient plastic deformation。


The sheet docking can be stirred with stirring,As long as the welding parameters are selected,Good weld joints can also be obtained,As a thickness2mmAluminum alloy5A06(LF6)+Pure copperT1Dip welding as an example,Turn speed at the stirre375~1180r·min-1,Welding speed30~150mm·min-1Wide range welding can achieve good weld formation。Among them1180r·min-1,Welding speed30mm·min-1Time to pull the tensile strength,achieve297~62MPa,Aluminum alloy5A05(314MPa)of95%。


Another example is quite distinctive,Plate thickness4mmof5A05+T2Dip stir friction welding,Pure copper when weldingT2Position,Mixing head of the stirring head is biased toward aluminum alloy5A05side0.9mm,Pre-welding preheating200°C,The mixture speed is1250r·min-1,Welding speed is40mm·min-1Welding,Get good weld formation。


(2)Resistance flash welding and energy storage aluminum-Copper flash to welding and capacitance energy storage is rely on increasing top forging speed and sufficient top forging force,At the same time, strict control of the top forging time,Extrud out the formed intermetallic compound with liquid metal,Make the brittle layer and discontinuous,To ensure large plastic deformation in the contact。E.g:Flash to welding,High current(Doubled than soldering steel)、High delivery speed(Too high than welding steel4Multiplication),High pressure fast overging(100~300mm·s-1)And extremely short energized top forging time(0.02~0.04s)。Sometimes in order to prevent brittle compounds,Getting zinc on the surface of the copper、Aluminum or silver solder。


Vacuum diffusion welding:aluminum-Copper vacuum diffusion welding can be obtained、Good thermal conductivity is very good fit。Does not need to add intermediate transition layers,Its main welding parameters are:Vacuum6.67×10-3Pa,Welding temperature500~520°C,pressure9.8MPa,time10min。See the Machinery Industry Press Publishing House《Welding engineer manual》Fifth5chapter。


Brazing:Aluminum is often used in the manufacture of electrical components-Copper brazing,See the Machinery Industry Press Publishing House《Welding engineer manual》Fifth10chapter。

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Welding welding-Brazing:Welding welding-Brazing is welding and brazing combined with aluminum-Welding technology for copper joints。Usually brazing copper,That is, a layer of zinc-based brazing material or plating layer is first solder in copper.50~60μmZinc layer。Then be welded with aluminum,Melt only the side of the aluminum。If spherped with gas,UseCJ401Welding and pure aluminum welding wire;Tungsten argon arc welding,Simply fill aluminum wire。